Manufacturing Someone Perfect

Dulcinea del Toboso

The eponymous hero—or antihero—of Miguel de Cervantes’s Don Quixote idealizes his ‘princess’ to such an extent that it becomes comical.

To emulate the knights-errant of old who fought battles to earn the affections of their true love, Don Quixote identifies a simple peasant girl called Aldonza Lorenzo, changes her name to the much more romantic and aristocratic sounding ‘Dulcinea del Toboso,’ and then paints her in the most flattering terms possible—even though he has only ever seen her fleetingly and never spoken to her. Dulcinea barely exists, but the idea of her nonetheless keeps Don Quixote alive on his quest.

…her name is Dulcinea, her country El Toboso, a village of La Mancha, her rank must be at least that of a princess, since she is my queen and lady, and her beauty superhuman, since all the impossible and fanciful attributes of beauty which the poets apply to their ladies are verified in her; for her hairs are gold, her forehead Elysian fields, her eyebrows rainbows, her eyes suns, her cheeks roses, her lips coral, her teeth pearls, her neck alabaster, her bosom marble, her hands ivory, her fairness snow, and what modesty conceals from sight such, I think and imagine, as rational reflection can only extol, not compare.

Idealization involves overestimating the positive attributes of a person, object, or idea and underestimating the negative attributes; but more fundamentally, it involves the projection of our needs and desires onto that person, object, or idea. The classic example of idealization is that of being infatuated, when love is confused with the need to love, and the idealized person’s negative attributes are not only underestimated but turned into positive attributes and thought of as endearing. Although this can make for a rude awakening, there are few better ways of relieving our existential anxiety than by manufacturing something that is ‘perfect’ for us, be it a piece of equipment, a place, country, person, or god.

But even a god is not enough. According to the philosopher and theologian St. Augustine, man is prone to a curious feeling of dissatisfaction and to a subtle sense of longing for something undefined. This feeling of dissatisfaction arises from his fallen condition: although he has an innate potential to relate to God or the absolute, this potential can never be fully realized, and so he yearns for other things to fill its place. Yet these other things do not satisfy, and he is left with an insatiable feeling of longing—longing for something that cannot be defined.

The writer and thinker C.S. Lewis calls this feeling of longing ‘joy,’ which he describes as ‘an unsatisfied desire which is itself more desirable than any other satisfaction,’ and which I like to think of—in the broadest sense—as a sort of aesthetic and creative reservoir. The paradox of ‘joy’ arises from the self-defeating nature of human desire, which might be thought of as nothing more or less than a desire for desire, a longing for longing.

In The Weight of Glory, Lewis illustrates this from the age-old quest for beauty,

The books or the music in which we thought the beauty was located will betray us if we trust to them; it was not in them, it only came through them, and what came through them was longing. These things—the beauty, the memory of our own past—are good images of what we really desire; but if they are mistaken for the thing itself they turn into dumb idols, breaking the hearts of their worshippers. For they are not the thing itself; they are only the scent of a flower we have not found, the echo of a tune we have not heard, news from a country we have not visited.

Adapted from my new book, Hide and Seek: The Psychology of Self-Deception

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Thinking about Love: The Myth of Narcissus

Narcissistic personality disorder derives its name from the Greek myth of Narcissus, of which there are several versions.

In Ovid’s version, which is the most commonly related, the nymph Echo falls in love with Narcissus, a youth of extraordinary beauty.

As a child, Narcissus had been prophesized by Teiresias, the blind prophet of Thebes, to ‘live to a ripe old age, as long as he never knows himself’.

One day, when Narcissus was out hunting for stags, the mountain nymph Echo followed him through the woods. She longed to speak to him but did not dare to utter the first word. Overhearing her footsteps, Narcissus cried out, ‘Who’s there?’ to which she replied, ‘Who’s there?’ When she finally showed herself, she rushed to embrace Narcissus, but he scorned her and pushed her away.

Echo spent the rest of her life grieving for Narcissus, until there was nothing left of her save for her voice.

Then, one day, Narcissus became thirsty and went to a lake. Seeing his reflection in the water, he fell in love with it, not realizing that he had fallen in love with his own reflection. However, each time he bent down to kiss it, it seemed to disappear.

Narcissus grew increasingly thirsty, but would not leave or touch the water for fear of losing sight of his reflection. Eventually he died of love and thirst, and on that very spot there appeared a narcissus flower.

Narcissus pseudonarcissus, or Daffodil

The myth of Narcissus has long evaded interpretation, and what could Ovid possibly have meant by it?

Like many blind figures in classical mythology, Teiresias could ‘see’ into himself and thus find self-knowledge. This self-knowledge enabled him not only to understand himself, but also to understand other people, and so to ‘see’ into their futures.

If asked to predict someone’s future, he sometimes, reluctantly, uttered a vague prophecy. But what did he mean when he prophesized that Narcissus would ‘live to a ripe old age, as long as he never knows himself’?

Perhaps he just meant that Narcissus would live for a long time so long as he did not fall in love with himself.

Or, more subtly, that once Narcissus ‘saw’ himself, that is, understood himself and others (including Echo’s love for him), he would be such a different person as to no longer count as his former self, and so resurrect as a flower (a plant that has flourished).

Echo too must have been looking for herself, which is why she was never anything more than an echo.

For both Echo and Narcissus, love of the world (of beauty, of the other, and, in particular, of the beautiful other) represented the means to self-knowledge, self-completion, and self-fulfilment – which is why Echo withered away after having had her love spurned by Narcissus.

By falling in love with his reflection, Narcissus not only received the punishment that he deserved for his lack of piety in the treatment of Echo, but also unwittingly exposed the love of the world as being nothing but, or the same as, self-love.

In his novel The Alchemist, Paolo Coehlo invents a continuation to the myth of Narcissus: after Narcissus died, the Goddesses of the Forest appeared and found the lake of fresh water transformed into a lake of salty tears.

‘Why do you weep?’ the Goddesses asked.
‘I weep for Narcissus,’ the lake replied.
‘Ah, it is no surprise that you weep for Narcissus,’ they said, ‘for though we always pursued him in the forest, you alone could contemplate his beauty close at hand.’
‘But… was Narcissus beautiful?’ the lake asked.
‘Who better than you to know that?’ the Goddesses said in wonder, ‘After all, it was by your banks that he knelt each day to contemplate himself!’
The lake was silent for some time. Finally it said: ‘I weep for Narcissus, but I never noticed that Narcissus was beautiful. I weep because, each time he knelt beside my banks, I could see in the depths of his eyes, my own beauty reflected.’

Notes:
1. Ovid, Metamorphoses, Book 3, Narcissus and Echo.
2. Paolo Coelho, The Alchemist, Prologue.

This blog post is adapted from my new book,
Hide and Seek, The Psychology of Self-Deception.

Non Traditional Method Sparkling Wines

Prosecco, Lambrusco, Sekt, and Asti

The long ageing, autolytic character, and expense associated with the traditional method is not best suited to all grape varieties. The other main method of making sparkling wine is the tank method, also known as cuve close or Charmat. Sugar and yeast are added to the base wine in a large pressurized tank, which may be fitted with rousing paddles to increase yeast contact. Once the second fermentation has taken place, the wine is cooled, clarified by centrifugation and filtration, and given a dosage. The method is cheap and consistent and has the notable advantage of preserving freshness and varietal character. On the other hand, it calls upon a large upfront investment, requires a skilled operator to prevent any loss of pressure, and lacks the charm and cachet of the traditional method. It is also unsuited to small-scale production.

Prosecco, most lambrusco, and most Sekt, amongst others, are made using the tank method. Prosecco is made in the area of Treviso in northeast Italy, where the cool and continental climate is perfectly suited to the late-ripening prosecco (Glera) grape. The DOCG delimited area covers 4,100 hectares running into the pre-Alps and Dolomites in the north. Most prosecco is made in the Conegliano and Valdobbiadene area. Prosecco from the hill of Cartizze, a vineyard of 107 hectares, is particularly rich and creamy and highly rated. The bulk of the prosecco production (around 20 million bottles) is spumante, most of the rest is frizzante (lightly sparkling), and a small amount is still. Prosecco should be drunk young. It is light, fresh, and intensely aromatic with primary fruit flavours, a modest alcohol of around 11%, and a signature slightly bitter finish. The traditional style is off dry with a sugar content of 16-17g/l that nicely fills out the wine. Today, much of exported prosecco is brut in style so as to suit modern tastes and best compete with champagne.

Lambrusco is, in the main, a red frizzante wine that is made from the eponymous lambrusco grape, a black grape that encompasses several varietals and that has been in cultivation since Roman and even Etruscan times. For a period in the 1970s and 1980s, it was the biggest selling import wine in the United States. The grapes and the wine originate from four areas of Emilia-Romagna and one area of Lombardy. The climate is Mediterranean and the soils are fertile, and yields can be fairly high. Most lambrusco is made by the tank method in co-operatives, and is of rather ordinary quality. Of the five Lambrusco DOCs, Lambrusco di Sorbara is the most highly regarded, with the best examples being made by the traditional method. Lambrusco is characterized by a flavour of sour cherries, high acidity, and a dry or off-dry style.

About 90% of Germany’s Sekt is made from inexpensive base wine sourced from outside Germany — mainly Italy, France, and Spain. The remainder is Deutscher Sekt, that is, Sekt made from German grapes. The vast majority of Sekt and Deutscher Sekt is made by the tank method and sold under the label of a large and inexpensive brand. The small amount of Deutscher Sekt that is made by the traditional method tends to consist of riesling, chardonnay, or the pinot varieties. The very best are likely to state the vineyard name and the vintage on the label. Sekt is big business in Germany, so much so that three of the world’s five biggest producers of sparkling wine are German.

Asti (formerly asti spumante, a name that had acquired a noxious reputation) is made from moscato bianco, that is, muscat blanc à petits grains, from a delimited region in southeast Piedmont, Italy. The DOCG limited areas are centred on the towns of Asti and Alba. Here the climate is continental and the land calcareous and gently sloping. The grapes are harvested by a large number of growers and sold off to négociants. The method of vinfication is the Asti method or single tank fermentation method. The must is transferred into large tanks and chilled to almost 0°C to inhibit fermentation. The tanks are sealed and pressurized and the temperature is raised to 16-18°C for a single fermentation to 7-7.5% alcohol and a pressure of around 5 atmospheres. The wine is then cooled to 0°C to halt fermentation and membrane filtered to remove the yeast and yeast nutrients. Finally, it is bottled under pressure using cool sterile bottling. Asti can also be made by double fermentation, with a second fermentation from 6% to 7.5% taking place in a sealed tank to build up pressure. The wine is fresh and intensely fruity and floral with dominant aromas of peach and musk and enough acidity to balance out the 3-5% residual sugar. Asti should not be confused with Moscato d’Asti, which is made from the same grape in the same region, but which is frizzante and with even lower alcohol. The Asti DOCG has the largest production of all Italian appellations, with an annual output of almost 90 millions bottles.

Why is it so difficult to do … nothing at all?

The manic defence is the tendency, when presented with uncomfortable thoughts or feelings, to distract the conscious mind either with a flurry of activity or with the opposite thoughts or feelings. A general example of the manic defence is the person who spends all of his time rushing around from one task to the next, and unable to tolerate even short periods of inactivity. For this person, even leisure time consists in a series of discrete programmed activities that he needs to submit to in order to tick off from an actual or mental list. One needs only observe the expression on his face as he ploughs through yet another family outing, cultural event, or gruelling exercise routine to realize that his aim in life is not so much to live in the present moment as it is to work down his never-ending list. If one asks him how he is doing, he is most likely to respond with an artificial smile and a stereotyped response along the lines of, ‘Fine, thank you – very busy of course!’ In many cases, he is not fine at all, but confused, exhausted, and fundamentally unhappy.

Other, more specific, examples of the manic defence include the socialite who attends one event after another, the small and dependent boy who charges around declaiming that he is Superman, and the sexually inadequate adolescent who laughs ‘like a maniac’ at the slightest intimation of sex. It is important to distinguish this sort of ‘manic laughter’ from the more mature laughter that arises from suddenly revealing or emphasizing the ridiculous or absurd aspects of an anxiety-provoking person, event, or situation. Such mature laughter enables a person to see a problem in a more accurate and less threatening context, and so to diffuse the anxiety that it gives rise to. All that is required to make a person laugh is to tell him the truth in the guise of a joke or a tease; drop the pretence, however, and the effect is entirely different. In short, laughter can be used either to reveal the truth or – as in the case of the manic defence – to conceal it or to block it out.

Indeed, the essence of the manic defence is to prevent feelings of helplessness and despair from entering the conscious mind by occupying it with opposite feelings of euphoria, purposeful activity, and omnipotent control. This is no doubt why people feel driven not only to mark but also to celebrate such depressing milestones as entering the workforce (graduation), getting ever older (birthdays, New Year), and even, more recently, death and dying (Halloween) – laughing when they should be crying and crying when they should be laughing. The manic defence may also take on more subtle forms, such as creating a commotion over something trivial; filling every ‘spare moment’ with reading, study, or on the phone to a friend; spending several months preparing for Christmas or some civic or sporting event; seeking out status or celebrity so as to be a ‘somebody’ rather than a ‘nobody’; entering into baseless friendships and relationships; even, sometimes, getting married and having children.

In Virginia Woolf’s novel of 1925, Mrs Dalloway, one of several ways in which Clarissa Dalloway prevents herself from thinking about her life is by planning unneeded events and then preoccupying herself with their prerequisites – ‘always giving parties to cover the silence’. Everyone uses the manic defence, but some people use it to such an extent that they find it difficult to cope with even short periods of unstructured time, such as holidays, weekends, and long-distance travel, which at least explains why airport shops are so profitable. In sum, it is not that the manically defended person is happy – not at all, in fact – but that he does not know how to be sad and, in time, at peace and at play. As the 19th century writer Oscar Wilde (Figure 3) put it in his essay, The Critic as Artist: With Some Remarks on the Importance of Doing Nothing, ‘To do nothing at all is the most difficult thing in the world, the most difficult and the most intellectual.’

It is interesting to note that the manic defence is particularly prevalent in Occidental and Occidentalized societies. One of the central tenets of the Western worldview is that one should always be engaged in some kind of outward task; in contrast, most people living in a country such as Kenya in Africa do not share in this idea that it is somehow noble or worthwhile to spend all of one’s time rushing around from one task to the next. When Westerners go to Kenya and behave as they do back home, they are met with peels of laughter and cries of ‘Mzungu’, which is Swahili for ‘Westerner’. The literal translation of ‘Mzungu’ is ‘one who moves around’, ‘to go round and round’, or ‘to turn around in circles’.

Sometimes, however, a life situation can become so unfulfilling or untenable that the manic defence no longer suffices to block out negative feelings, and the person has no real choice but to switch and to adopt the depressive position. Put differently, a person adopts the depressive position if the gap between his current life situation and his ideal life situation becomes so large that it can no longer be carpeted over. His goals seem far out of reach and he can no longer envisage a future. As in Psalm 41, abyssus abyssum invocat – ‘hell brings forth hell’, or, in an alternative translation, ‘the deep calls onto the deep’.

Adapted from The Art of Failure, The Anti Self-Help Guide

Champagne 3: Method of Production

Like many sparkling wines, champagne is produced by the traditional or classic method, which is characterized by a second fermentation in the very same bottle in which the wine eventually comes to be sold. Although the traditional method is usually thought of as the best method for producing sparkling wine, it is the only method that does not require expensive, large scale equipment, and hence the only method that is available to the small scale producer.

The grapes that go into making champagne require both high acidity and phenolic ripeness, a combination that is much easier to achieve in the cool Champagne region than in warmer climates. So as to preserve acidity, grapes are harvested early at a low must weight. This comes at the expense of sugar content, which is made up for by the subsequent addition of sugar in the form of liqueur de tirage and liqueur de dosage and also, in some cases, by initial chaptalization (see later). In black grapes it also comes at the expense of colour, which for champagne is in fact a benefit.

The vineyards are harvested by hand and whole bunches are cut. This ensures not only that individual grapes are left undamaged but also that the juice can run off quickly along the stalks, which act as drainage channels in the press. The grapes are pressed without delay, traditionally in a basket or Coquard press although other types of press, notably the Vaslin horizontal press and the more delicate Wilmes horizontal press, are also used. Gentle pressure is applied so as to minimize the extraction of undesirable colour and tannin. By law, only 102 litres of must can be extracted from every 160 kilos of grapes. The first 80 litres to emerge are the cuvée. The cuvée is of the finest quality as it is highest in acidity and sugar and lowest in phenolics. The remaining 22 litres are the taille which may or may not be excluded, and anything beyond 102 litres is the vin de rebèche which cannot be used for champagne. After pressing, the must is clarified although some solids need to be retained to facilitate the second fermentation. The must may also be chaptalized at this stage.

The Coquard Press

Next the must is fermented to a still wine, normally in stainless steel vats although some producers such as Bollinger and Krug use (old) oak casks. Too cool a fermentation temperature encourages the formation of undesirable amylic aromas, which may mask some of the much more subtle and complex aromas of the finished champagne. Most champagne houses encourage malolactic fermentation although some, most notably Lanson, prefer to avoid it.

Grapes from different plots and parcels are vinified separately. In the spring following the harvest these vins clairs are blended along with varying proportions of reserve wine from older vintages. This process of blending or assemblage aims not only at balance and complexity but also at producing a consistent house style. As several of the numerous parameters of the savant mélange are highly vintage dependent, there can be no fixed recipe for the house style and every release is the product of the fine and expert judgement of a master blender.

The blended still wine, though full of promise, is not particularly pleasant to drink. It is bottled together with the liqueur de tirage, a mixture of wine, sugar, and yeast. The purpose of the liqueur de tirage is to induce a second, slower fermentation or prise de mousse in the bottle. Around 24 grams of sugar per litre are required to add around 1.2% of alcohol. This brings total alcohol to around 12% and also yields sufficient carbon dioxide for a bottle pressure of around 5-6 atmospheres – 5-6 times atmospheric pressure at sea level or the same pressure as in the tire of a double-decker bus!

The bottles are sealed with a crown cap and laid horizontally sur lattes in a cool cellar. The prise de mousse takes place over a period of perhaps 4-8 weeks after which the wine is left to mature, in some cases for several years, on the dead yeast or lees. During this long period, the gradual breakdown of yeast cells releases mannoproteins, polysaccharides, and anti-oxidative enzymes into the wine. This yeast autolysis results in a fuller body with a more unctuous mouthfeel; reduced bitterness and astringency; complex aromas of biscuit, bread dough, nuttiness, and acacia; and improved ageing potential. By law, non-vintage wines must sit on the lees for a minimum period of 15 months and vintage wines for a minimum period of 36 months. Many producers largely exceed these minimum requirements.

Champagne bottles sur lattes and (foreground) on pupitres.

Compared to blending and ageing on the lees, the remaining steps in the method of production of champagne add relatively little to overall quality. The bottles are first agitated so as to loosen and consolidate the sediment, a process called poignettage. The yeast deposit is then gradually moved into the neck of the bottle. Traditionally, this is carried out over 8-10 weeks on a pupitre, a wooden frame with 60 holes bored at an angle of 45 degrees on which bottles can be manually turned from horizontal to vertical. Nowadays, this process of riddling or remuage is far more likely to be carried out on a much larger scale and in a much shorter time by a mechanized gyropalette. Once the bottle is vertical, it is left in this position (sur pointes) for a further period of maturation.

Next, the crown cap and lees are removed. This process of disgorgement used to be carried out by hand or à la volée. Today it is usually carried out in an automated process that involves freezing the material in the neck of the bottle and ejecting this ice plug under the pressure of the wine. The liqueur d’expédition or dosage is then added. This consists of a mixture of the base wine and varying amounts of sugar that serves both to balance acidity and to determine the final style of the wine. By far the most common style is brut with added sugar of 6-15g/L. Other fairly common styles are extra brut with 0-6g/L and demi-sec with 35-50g/L.

A composite or agglomerated cork with whole cork attached to the base is inserted and held in place by a capsule and wire cage (muselet). But the wine is not yet ready to drink, and a further rest period is required for the dosage to marry with the wine. During this period, a number of chemical reactions between sugar in the dosage and amino acids in the wine yield additional aromas of dried fruit, toast, and vanilla that add to the overall complexity of the wine. Some authorities have argued that zero dosage wines (bone dry wines with no added sugar) are unable to benefit from this so-called Maillard reaction, as a result of which they have a relatively limited ageing potential.

To produce the smallest and largest bottle sizes (beyond jeroboam i.e. double magnum or 3 litres), the wine is disgorged into a pressure tank, the dosage is added to the tank, and the wine is rebottled – a process called transversage. No doubt there is something lost in this process, even though it may not be very much. Bottle sizes beyond jeroboam are rehoboam (4.5 litres), methusalem (6 litres), salmanazar (9 litres), balthazar (12 litres), and nebuchadnezzar (15 litres), and it is not entirely clear why they have been or should be named after biblical characters.

The method of production described above may be slightly adapted for different styles of champagne. Vintage champagne is not made every year but only in very good to exceptional years. The wines that go into the assemblage must all be from the same declared vintage and the minimum period for ageing on the lees is 36 months. Compared to non-vintage champagne, vintage champagne is richer and fuller and more apt to improve with bottle age. A producer may also indulge in a cuvée de prestige, which is normally a vintage champagne made from premium grapes and/or aged for an even longer period. Pink champagne, which accounts for about 7% of total production, is made by adding a small amount of still red wine prior to first fermentation. Champagne that is sold as ‘recently disgorged’ or similar is champagne that has benefited from prolonged yeast ageing and that has been released for sale soon after disgorgement. If consumed soon after release, this champagne can taste especially fresh, fruity, and complex.